Chromatin-Associated Molecular Patterns (CAMPs) in sepsis

A study, published on Aug. 12 in Nature, identifies several molecular patterns that recognise pattern recognition receptors. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are commonly used terminologies to classify molecules originating from pathogen and endogenous molecules, respectively, to heighten the immune response in sepsis.

The authors focused on a subgroup of endogenous molecules that may be detected as foreign and similarly trigger immune signaling pathways. These chromatin-associated molecules, i.e., chromatin containing nuclear DNA and histones, extracellular RNA, mitochondrial DNA, telomeric repeat-containing RNA, DNA- or RNA-binding proteins, and extracellular traps, may be newly classified as chromatin- associated molecular patterns (CAMPs). Consequentially, the authors review the release of CAMPs from cells, their mechanism of action and downstream immune signaling pathways, and targeted therapeutic approaches to mitigate inflammation and tissue injury in inflammation and sepsis.

Hence, this important study reveals how increased levels of CAMPs correlate with the severity of sepsis and that their targeting can attenuate inflammation in sepsis. This creates a novel therapeutic opportunity for NucleoCapture, where histone conjugated polymer beads directly contact plasma to remove NETs and other cell-free DNA fragments from patient’s blood.

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